Japanese cuisine is based on combining staple foods, typically Japanese rice or noodles, with a soup and okazu – dishes made from fish, vegetable, tofu and such – to add flavor to the staple food.[348] In the early modern era ingredients such as red meats that had previously not been widely used in Japan were introduced. Japanese cuisine is known for its emphasis on seasonality of food,[349] quality of ingredients and presentation. Japanese cuisine offers a vast array of regional specialties that use traditional recipes and local ingredients. The phrase ichijū-sansai (一汁三菜, “one soup, three sides”) refers to the makeup of a typical meal served, but has roots in classic kaiseki, honzen, and yūsoku cuisine. The term is also used to describe the first course served in standard kaiseki cuisine nowadays.[350] Japanese curry, since its introduction to Japan from British India, is so widely consumed that it can be called a national dish.[351] A plate of nigiri-zushi Traditional Japanese sweets are known as wagashi.[352] Ingredients such as red bean paste and mochi are used. More modern-day tastes includes green tea ice cream, a very popular flavor.[353] Kakigōri is a shaved ice dessert flavored with syrup or condensed milk. It is usually sold and eaten at summer festivals. Popular Japanese beverages such as sake, which is a brewed rice beverage that, typically, contains 14%~17% alcohol and is made by multiple fermentation of rice.[354] Beer has been brewed in Japan since the late 1800s,[355] and is produced in many regions by companies including Asahi Breweries, Kirin Brewery, and Sapporo Brewery – claiming to be the oldest named brand of beer in Japan.[356] Holidays Main article: Public holidays in Japan Young ladies celebrate Coming of Age Day (成人の日 Seijin no Hi) in Harajuku, Tokyo Officially, Japan has 16 national, government-recognized holidays. Public holidays in Japan are regulated by the Public Holiday Law (国民の祝日に関する法律 Kokumin no Shukujitsu ni Kansuru Hōritsu) of 1948.[357] Beginning in 2000, Japan implemented the Happy Monday System, which moved a number of national holidays to Monday in order to obtain a long weekend. In 2006, the country decided to add Shōwa Day, a new national holiday, in place of Greenery Day on April 29, and to move Greenery Day to May 4. These changes took effect in 2007. In 2014, the House of Councillors decided to add Mountain Day (山の日 Yama no Hi) to the Japanese calendar on August 11, after lobbying by the Japanese Alpine Club. It is intended to coincide with the Bon Festival vacation timeBritish Broadcasting Corporation—an organization widely trusted, even by citizens of the Axis Powers during World War II—was widely emulated throughout Europe, the British Empire, and later the Commonwealth. The public broadcasters in a number of countries are basically an application of the model used in Britain.[citation needed] Modern public broadcasting is often a mixed commercial model. For example, the CBC is funded by advertising revenue supplemented by a government subsidy to support its television service. Americas Edit Argentina Edit State presence in television had a strong history, not in the way of European style public service radio or television. The private sector has taken an active role in the development of television in Buenos Aires. In opposition, state broadcasters tend to be federal and technical innovative, such as the Televisión Pública Argentina, the first national TV station, 68 years old. Brazil Edit In Brazil, the two main national public broadcasters are EBC (Empresa Brasil de Comunicação, Brazil Communication Company) and the Fundação Padre Anchieta (Padre Anchieta Foundation). The EBC was created in 2007 to manage the Brazilian federal government’s radio and television stations. EBC owns broadcast networks such as TV Brasil (launched in 2007, being the merger of Rio de Janeiro’s TV Educativa (1975–2007) and Brasília’s TV Nacional (1960–2007), and the stations Nacional and Radio MEC in Brasilia and Rio de Janeiro. The Fundação Padre Anchieta was created by the government of the state of São Paulo in 1967 and includes a television station (TV Cultura, launched in 1969 in São Paulo), and two radio stations (Rádio Cultura FM and Rádio Cultura Brasil). The Padre Anchieta Foundation is a privately held company which maintains autonomy. Many Brazilian states also has a also has regional public radio and television stations, all of them members of the Brazilian Association of Public, Educational and Cultural Broadcasters (ABEPEC). This is the case of the state of Minas Gerais, which has the Empresa Mineira de Comunicação (EMC, Minas Gerais Communication Company), a public company created in 2016, formed by Rede Minas, the public television channel and the two stations of Rádio Inconfidência (which also broadcasts in shortwave). The state of Espírito Santo also has its own public radio (Rádio Espírito Santo) and television (Televisão Educativa do Espírito Santo – TVE-ES, Educational Television of Espírito Santo). In Rio Grande do Sul, the public television station is the TVE-RS (Televisão Educativa do Rio Grande do Sul, Educational Television of Rio Grande do Sul) and a radio station (FM Cultura). The regional public television channels in Brazil are affiliates and broadcast part of TV Brasil or TV Cultura programming. Currently, EBC undergoes several critics by some conservative politicians for having a supposed left-leaning bias. The current president of Brazil, Jair Bolsonaro, intends to extinguish the EBC.[7][8] Canada Edit See also: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation In Canada, the main public broadcaster is the national Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC; French: Société Radio-Canada), a crown corporation – which originated as a radio network in November 1936. It is the successor to the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission (CRBC), which was established by the administration of Prime Minister R.B. Bennett in 1932, modeled on recommendations made in 1929 by the Royal Commission on Radio Broadcasting and stemming from lobbying efforts by the Canadian Radio League. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation took over operation of the CRBC’s nine radio stations (which were largely concentrated in major cities across Canada, including Toronto, Vancouver, Montreal and Ottawa). The CBC eventually expanded to television in September 1952 with the sign-on of CBFT in Montreal, the first television station in Canada to initiate full-time broadcasts, which initially served as a primary affiliate of the French language Télévision de Radio-Canada and a secondary affiliate of the English language CBC Television service.[9] CBC operates two national television networks (CBC Television and Ici Radio-Canada Télé), four radio networks (CBC Radio One, CBC Radio 2, Ici Radio-Canada Première and Ici Musique) and several cable television channels including two 24-hour news channels (CBC News Network and Ici RDI) in both of Canada’s official languages – English and French – and the French-language science channel Ici Explora. CBC’s national television operations and some radio operations are funded partly by advertisements, in addition to the subsidy provided by the federal government. The cable channels are commercial entities owned and operated by the CBC and do not receive any direct public funds, however, they do benefit from synergies with resources from the other CBC operations. The CBC has frequently dealt with budget cuts and labour disputes, often resulting in a debate about whether the service has the resources necessary to properly fulfill its mandate. As of 2017, all of CBC Television’s terrestrial stations are owned and operated by the CBC directly. The number of privately owned CBC Television affiliates has gradually declined in recent years, as the network has moved its programming to stations opened by the corporation or has purchased certain affiliates from private broadcasting groups; budgetary issues led the CBC to choose not to launch new rebroadcast transmitters in markets where the network disaffiliated from a private station after 2006; the network dropped its remaining private affiliates in 2016, when CJDC-TV/Dawson Creek and CFTK-TV/Terrace, British Columbia defected from CBC Television that February and Lloydminster-based CKSA-DT disaffiliated in August of that year (to become affiliates of CTV Two and Global, respectively). The CBC’s decision to disaffiliate from these and other privately owned stations, as well as the corporation decommissioning its network of rebroadcasters following Canada’s transition to digital television in August 2011 have significantly reduced the terrestrial coverage of both giving Japanese people an opportunity to appreciate Japan’s British Broadcasting Corporation—an organization widely trusted, even by citizens of the Axis Powers during World War II—was widely emulated throughout Europe, the British Empire, and later the Commonwealth. The public broadcasters in a number of countries are basically an application of the model used in Britain.[citation needed] Modern public broadcasting is often a mixed commercial model. For example, the CBC is funded by advertising revenue supplemented by a government subsidy to support its television service. Americas Edit Argentina Edit State presence in television had a strong history, not in the way of European style public service radio or television. The private sector has taken an active role in the development of television in Buenos Aires. In opposition, state broadcasters tend to be federal and technical innovative, such as the Televisión Pública Argentina, the first national TV station, 68 years old. Brazil Edit In Brazil, the two main national public broadcasters are EBC (Empresa Brasil de Comunicação, Brazil Communication Company) and the Fundação Padre Anchieta (Padre Anchieta Foundation). The EBC was created in 2007 to manage the Brazilian federal government’s radio and television stations. EBC owns broadcast networks such as TV Brasil (launched in 2007, being the merger of Rio de Janeiro’s TV Educativa (1975–2007) and Brasília’s TV Nacional (1960–2007), and the stations Nacional and Radio MEC in Brasilia and Rio de Janeiro. The Fundação Padre Anchieta was created by the government of the state of São Paulo in 1967 and includes a television station (TV Cultura, launched in 1969 in São Paulo), and two radio stations (Rádio Cultura FM and Rádio Cultura Brasil). The Padre Anchieta Foundation is a privately held company which maintains autonomy. Many Brazilian states also has a also has regional public radio and television stations, all of them members of the Brazilian Association of Public, Educational and Cultural Broadcasters (ABEPEC). This is the case of the state of Minas Gerais, which has the Empresa Mineira de Comunicação (EMC, Minas Gerais Communication Company), a public company created in 2016, formed by Rede Minas, the public television channel and the two stations of Rádio Inconfidência (which also broadcasts in shortwave). The state of Espírito Santo also has its own public radio (Rádio Espírito Santo) and television (Televisão Educativa do Espírito Santo – TVE-ES, Educational Television of Espírito Santo). In Rio Grande do Sul, the public television station is the TVE-RS (Televisão Educativa do Rio Grande do Sul, Educational Television of Rio Grande do Sul) and a radio station (FM Cultura). The regional public television channels in Brazil are affiliates and broadcast part of TV Brasil or TV Cultura programming. Currently, EBC undergoes several critics by some conservative politicians for having a supposed left-leaning bias. The current president of Brazil, Jair Bolsonaro, intends to extinguish the EBC.[7][8] Canada Edit See also: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation In Canada, the main public broadcaster is the national Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC; French: Société Radio-Canada), a crown corporation – which originated as a radio network in November 1936. It is the successor to the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission (CRBC), which was established by the administration of Prime Minister R.B. Bennett in 1932, modeled on recommendations made in 1929 by the Royal Commission on Radio Broadcasting and stemming from lobbying efforts by the Canadian Radio League. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation took over operation of the CRBC’s nine radio stations (which were largely concentrated in major cities across Canada, including Toronto, Vancouver, Montreal and Ottawa). The CBC eventually expanded to television in September 1952 with the sign-on of CBFT in Montreal, the first television station in Canada to initiate full-time broadcasts, which initially served as a primary affiliate of the French language Télévision de Radio-Canada and a secondary affiliate of the English language CBC Television service.[9] CBC operates two national television networks (CBC Television and Ici Radio-Canada Télé), four radio networks (CBC Radio One, CBC Radio 2, Ici Radio-Canada Première and Ici Musique) and several cable television channels including two 24-hour news channels (CBC News Network and Ici RDI) in both of Canada’s official languages – English and French – and the French-language science channel Ici Explora. CBC’s national television operations and some radio operations are funded partly by advertisements, in addition to the subsidy provided by the federal government. The cable channels are commercial entities owned and operated by the CBC and do not receive any direct public funds, however, they do benefit from synergies with resources from the other CBC operations. The CBC has frequently dealt with budget cuts and labour disputes, often resulting in a debate about whether the service has the resources necessary to properly fulfill its mandate. As of 2017, all of CBC Television’s terrestrial stations are owned and operated by the CBC directly. The number of privately owned CBC Television affiliates has gradually declined in recent years, as the network has moved its programming to stations opened by the corporation or has purchased certain affiliates from private broadcasting groups; budgetary issues led the CBC to choose not to launch new rebroadcast transmitters in markets where the network disaffiliated from a private station after 2006; the network dropped its remaining private affiliates in 2016, when CJDC-TV/Dawson Creek and CFTK-TV/Terrace, British Columbia defected from CBC Television that February and Lloydminster-based CKSA-DT disaffiliated in August of that year (to become affiliates of CTV Two and Global, respectively). The CBC’s decision to disaffiliate from these and other privately owned stations, as well as the corporation decommissioning its network of rebroadcasters following Canada’s transition to digital television in August 2011 have significantly reduced the terrestrial coverage of both .[358][359] British Broadcasting Corporation—an organization widely trusted, even by citizens of the Axis Powers during World War II—was widely emulated throughout Europe, the British Empire, and later the Commonwealth. The public broadcasters in a number of countries are basically an application of the model used in Britain.[citation needed] Modern public broadcasting is often a mixed commercial model. For example, the CBC is funded by advertising revenue supplemented by a government subsidy to support its television service. Americas Edit Argentina Edit State presence in television had a strong history, not in the way of European style public service radio or television. The private sector has taken an active role in the development of television in Buenos Aires. In opposition, state broadcasters tend to be federal and technical innovative, such as the Televisión Pública Argentina, the first national TV station, 68 years old. Brazil Edit In Brazil, the two main national public broadcasters are EBC (Empresa Brasil de Comunicação, Brazil Communication Company) and the Fundação Padre Anchieta (Padre Anchieta Foundation). The EBC was created in 2007 to manage the Brazilian federal government’s radio and television stations. EBC owns broadcast networks such as TV Brasil (launched in 2007, being the merger of Rio de Janeiro’s TV Educativa (1975–2007) and Brasília’s TV Nacional (1960–2007), and the stations Nacional and Radio MEC in Brasilia and Rio de Janeiro. The Fundação Padre Anchieta was created by the government of the state of São Paulo in 1967 and includes a television station (TV Cultura, launched in 1969 in São Paulo), and two radio stations (Rádio Cultura FM and Rádio Cultura Brasil). The Padre Anchieta Foundation is a privately held company which maintains autonomy. Many Brazilian states also has a also has regional public radio and television stations, all of them members of the Brazilian Association of Public, Educational and Cultural Broadcasters (ABEPEC). This is the case of the state of Minas Gerais, which has the Empresa Mineira de Comunicação (EMC, Minas Gerais Communication Company), a public company created in 2016, formed by Rede Minas, the public television channel and the two stations of Rádio Inconfidência (which also broadcasts in shortwave). The state of Espírito Santo also has its own public radio (Rádio Espírito Santo) and television (Televisão Educativa do Espírito Santo – TVE-ES, Educational Television of Espírito Santo). In Rio Grande do Sul, the public television station is the TVE-RS (Televisão Educativa do Rio Grande do Sul, Educational Television of Rio Grande do Sul) and a radio station (FM Cultura). The regional public television channels in Brazil are affiliates and broadcast part of TV Brasil or TV Cultura programming. Currently, EBC undergoes several critics by some conservative politicians for having a supposed left-leaning bias. The current president of Brazil, Jair Bolsonaro, intends to extinguish the EBC.[7][8] Canada Edit See also: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation In Canada, the main public broadcaster is the national Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC; French: Société Radio-Canada), a crown corporation – which originated as a radio network in November 1936. It is the successor to the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission (CRBC), which was established by the administration of Prime Minister R.B. Bennett in 1932, modeled on recommendations made in 1929 by the Royal Commission on Radio Broadcasting and stemming from lobbying efforts by the Canadian Radio League. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation took over operation of the CRBC’s nine radio stations (which were largely concentrated in major cities across Canada, including Toronto, Vancouver, Montreal and Ottawa). The CBC eventually expanded to television in September 1952 with the sign-on of CBFT in Montreal, the first television station in Canada to initiate full-time broadcasts, which initially served as a primary affiliate of the French language Télévision de Radio-Canada and a secondary affiliate of the English language CBC Television service.[9] CBC operates two national television networks (CBC Television and Ici Radio-Canada Télé), four radio networks (CBC Radio One, CBC Radio 2, Ici Radio-Canada Première and Ici Musique) and several cable television channels including two 24-hour news channels (CBC News Network and Ici RDI) in both of Canada’s official languages – English and French – and the French-language science channel Ici Explora. CBC’s national television operations and some radio operations are funded partly by advertisements, in addition to the subsidy provided by the federal government. The cable channels are commercial entities owned and operated by the CBC and do not receive any direct public funds, however, they do benefit from synergies with resources from the other CBC operations. The CBC has frequently dealt with budget cuts and labour disputes, often resulting in a debate about whether the service has the resources necessary to properly fulfill its mandate. As of 2017, all of CBC Television’s terrestrial stations are owned and operated by the CBC directly. The number of privately owned CBC Television affiliates has gradually declined in recent years, as the network has moved its programming to stations opened by the corporation or has purchased certain affiliates from private broadcasting groups; budgetary issues led the CBC to choose not to launch new rebroadcast transmitters in markets where the network disaffiliated from a private station after 2006; the network dropped its remaining private affiliates in 2016, when CJDC-TV/Dawson Creek and CFTK-TV/Terrace, British Columbia defected from CBC Television that February and Lloydminster-based CKSA-DT disaffiliated in August of that year (to become affiliates of CTV Two and Global, respectively). The CBC’s decision to disaffiliate from these and other privately owned stations, as well as the corporation decommissioning its network of rebroadcasters following Canada’s transition to digital television in August 2011 have significantly reduced the terrestrial coverage of both British Broadcasting Corporation—an organization widely trusted, even by citizens of the Axis Powers during World War II—was widely emulated throughout Europe, the British Empire, and later the Commonwealth. The public broadcasters in a number of countries are basically an application of the model used in Britain.[citation needed] Modern public broadcasting is often a mixed commercial model. For example, the CBC is funded by advertising revenue supplemented by a government subsidy to support its television service. Americas Edit Argentina Edit State presence in television had a strong history, not in the way of European style public service radio or television. The private sector has taken an active role in the development of television in Buenos Aires. In opposition, state broadcasters tend to be federal and technical innovative, such as the Televisión Pública Argentina, the first national TV station, 68 years old. Brazil Edit In Brazil, the two main national public broadcasters are EBC (Empresa Brasil de Comunicação, Brazil Communication Company) and the Fundação Padre Anchieta (Padre Anchieta Foundation). The EBC was created in 2007 to manage the Brazilian federal government’s radio and television stations. EBC owns broadcast networks such as TV Brasil (launched in 2007, being the merger of Rio de Janeiro’s TV Educativa (1975–2007) and Brasília’s TV Nacional (1960–2007), and the stations Nacional and Radio MEC in Brasilia and Rio de Janeiro. The Fundação Padre Anchieta was created by the government of the state of São Paulo in 1967 and includes a television station (TV Cultura, launched in 1969 in São Paulo), and two radio stations (Rádio Cultura FM and Rádio Cultura Brasil). The Padre Anchieta Foundation is a privately held company which maintains autonomy. Many Brazilian states also has a also has regional public radio and television stations, all of them members of the Brazilian Association of Public, Educational and Cultural Broadcasters (ABEPEC). This is the case of the state of Minas Gerais, which has the Empresa Mineira de Comunicação (EMC, Minas Gerais Communication Company), a public company created in 2016, formed by Rede Minas, the public television channel and the two stations of Rádio Inconfidência (which also broadcasts in shortwave). The state of Espírito Santo also has its own public radio (Rádio Espírito Santo) and television (Televisão Educativa do Espírito Santo – TVE-ES, Educational Television of Espírito Santo). In Rio Grande do Sul, the public television station is the TVE-RS (Televisão Educativa do Rio Grande do Sul, Educational Television of Rio Grande do Sul) and a radio station (FM Cultura). The regional public television channels in Brazil are affiliates and broadcast part of TV Brasil or TV Cultura programming. Currently, EBC undergoes several critics by some conservative politicians for having a supposed left-leaning bias. The current president of Brazil, Jair Bolsonaro, intends to extinguish the EBC.[7][8] Canada Edit See also: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation In Canada, the main public broadcaster is the national Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC; French: Société Radio-Canada), a crown corporation – which originated as a radio network in November 1936. It is the successor to the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission (CRBC), which was established by the administration of Prime Minister R.B. Bennett in 1932, modeled on recommendations made in 1929 by the Royal Commission on Radio Broadcasting and stemming from lobbying efforts by the Canadian Radio League. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation took over operation of the CRBC’s nine radio stations (which were largely concentrated in major cities across Canada, including Toronto, Vancouver, Montreal and Ottawa). The CBC eventually expanded to television in September 1952 with the sign-on of CBFT in Montreal, the first television station in Canada to initiate full-time broadcasts, which initially served as a primary affiliate of the French language Télévision de Radio-Canada and a secondary affiliate of the English language CBC Television service.[9] CBC operates two national television networks (CBC Television and Ici Radio-Canada Télé), four radio networks (CBC Radio One, CBC Radio 2, Ici Radio-Canada Première and Ici Musique) and several cable television channels including two 24-hour news channels (CBC News Network and Ici RDI) in both of Canada’s official languages – English and French – and the French-language science channel Ici Explora. CBC’s national television operations and some radio operations are funded partly by advertisements, in addition to the subsidy provided by the federal government. The cable channels are commercial entities owned and operated by the CBC and do not receive any direct public funds, however, they do benefit from synergies with resources from the other CBC operations. The CBC has frequently dealt with budget cuts and labour disputes, often resulting in a debate about whether the service has the resources necessary to properly fulfill its mandate. As of 2017, all of CBC Television’s terrestrial stations are owned and operated by the CBC directly. The number of privately owned CBC Television affiliates has gradually declined in recent years, as the network has moved its programming to stations opened by the corporation or has purchased certain affiliates from private broadcasting groups; budgetary issues led the CBC to choose not to launch new rebroadcast transmitters in markets where the network disaffiliated from a private station after 2006; the network dropped its remaining private affiliates in 2016, when CJDC-TV/Dawson Creek and CFTK-TV/Terrace, British Columbia defected from CBC Television that February and Lloydminster-based CKSA-DT disaffiliated in August of that year (to become affiliates of CTV Two and Global, respectively). The CBC’s decision to disaffiliate from these and other privately owned stations, as well as the corporation decommissioning its network of rebroadcasters following Canada’s transition to digital television in August 2011 have significantly reduced the terrestrial coverage of both British Broadcasting Corporation—an organization widely trusted, even by citizens of the Axis Powers during World War II—was widely emulated throughout Europe, the British Empire, and later the Commonwealth. The public broadcasters in a number of countries are basically an application of the model used in Britain.[citation needed] Modern public broadcasting is often a mixed commercial model. For example, the CBC is funded by advertising revenue supplemented by a government subsidy to support its television service. Americas Edit Argentina Edit State presence in television had a strong history, not in the way of European style public service radio or television. The private sector has taken an active role in the development of television in Buenos Aires. In opposition, state broadcasters tend to be federal and technical innovative, such as the Televisión Pública Argentina, the first national TV station, 68 years old. Brazil Edit In Brazil, the two main national public broadcasters are EBC (Empresa Brasil de Comunicação, Brazil Communication Company) and the Fundação Padre Anchieta (Padre Anchieta Foundation). The EBC was created in 2007 to manage the Brazilian federal government’s radio and television stations. EBC owns broadcast networks such as TV Brasil (launched in 2007, being the merger of Rio de Janeiro’s TV Educativa (1975–2007) and Brasília’s TV Nacional (1960–2007), and the stations Nacional and Radio MEC in Brasilia and Rio de Janeiro. The Fundação Padre Anchieta was created by the government of the state of São Paulo in 1967 and includes a television station (TV Cultura, launched in 1969 in São Paulo), and two radio stations (Rádio Cultura FM and Rádio Cultura Brasil). The Padre Anchieta Foundation is a privately held company which maintains autonomy. Many Brazilian states also has a also has regional public radio and television stations, all of them members of the Brazilian Association of Public, Educational and Cultural Broadcasters (ABEPEC). This is the case of the state of Minas Gerais, which has the Empresa Mineira de Comunicação (EMC, Minas Gerais Communication Company), a public company created in 2016, formed by Rede Minas, the public television channel and the two stations of Rádio Inconfidência (which also broadcasts in shortwave). The state of Espírito Santo also has its own public radio (Rádio Espírito Santo) and television (Televisão Educativa do Espírito Santo – TVE-ES, Educational Television of Espírito Santo). In Rio Grande do Sul, the public television station is the TVE-RS (Televisão Educativa do Rio Grande do Sul, Educational Television of Rio Grande do Sul) and a radio station (FM Cultura). The regional public television channels in Brazil are affiliates and broadcast part of TV Brasil or TV Cultura programming. Currently, EBC undergoes several critics by some conservative politicians for having a supposed left-leaning bias. The current president of Brazil, Jair Bolsonaro, intends to extinguish the EBC.[7][8] Canada Edit See also: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation In Canada, the main public broadcaster is the national Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC; French: Société Radio-Canada), a crown corporation – which originated as a radio network in November 1936. It is the successor to the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission (CRBC), which was established by the administration of Prime Minister R.B. Bennett in 1932, modeled on recommendations made in 1929 by the Royal Commission on Radio Broadcasting and stemming from lobbying efforts by the Canadian Radio League. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation took over operation of the CRBC’s nine radio stations (which were largely concentrated in major cities across Canada, including Toronto, Vancouver, Montreal and Ottawa). The CBC eventually expanded to television in September 1952 with the sign-on of CBFT in Montreal, the first television station in Canada to initiate full-time broadcasts, which initially served as a primary affiliate of the French language Télévision de Radio-Canada and a secondary affiliate of the English language CBC Television service.[9] CBC operates two national television networks (CBC Television and Ici Radio-Canada Télé), four radio networks (CBC Radio One, CBC Radio 2, Ici Radio-Canada Première and Ici Musique) and several cable television channels including two 24-hour news channels (CBC News Network and Ici RDI) in both of Canada’s official languages – English and French – and the French-language science channel Ici Explora. CBC’s national television operations and some radio operations are funded partly by advertisements, in addition to the subsidy provided by the federal government. The cable channels are commercial entities owned and operated by the CBC and do not receive any direct public funds, however, they do benefit from synergies with resources from the other CBC operations. The CBC has frequently dealt with budget cuts and labour disputes, often resulting in a debate about whether the service has the resources necessary to properly fulfill its mandate. As of 2017, all of CBC Television’s terrestrial stations are owned and operated by the CBC directly. The number of privately owned CBC Television affiliates has gradually declined in recent years, as the network has moved its programming to stations opened by the corporation or has purchased certain affiliates from private broadcasting groups; budgetary issues led the CBC to choose not to launch new rebroadcast transmitters in markets where the network disaffiliated from a private station after 2006; the network dropped its remaining private affiliates in 2016, when CJDC-TV/Dawson Creek and CFTK-TV/Terrace, British Columbia defected from CBC Television that February and Lloydminster-based CKSA-DT disaffiliated in August of that year (to become affiliates of CTV Two and Global, respectively). The CBC’s decision to disaffiliate from these and other privately owned stations, as well as the corporation decommissioning its network of rebroadcasters following Canada’s transition to digital television in August 2011 have significantly reduced the terrestrial coverage of both Early public stations were operated by state colleges and universities, and were often run as part of the schools’ cooperative extension services. Stations in this era were internally funded, and did not rely on listener contributions to operate; some accepted advertising. Networks such as Iowa Public Radio, South Dakota Public Radio, and Wisconsin Public Radio began under this structure.[18]

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