Portugal has been a semi-presidential representative democratic republic since the ratification of the Constitution of 1976, with Lisbon, the nation’s largest city, as its capital[citation needed]. The Constitution grants the division or separation of powers among four bodies referred as “organs of Sovereignty”: the President of the Republic, the Government, the Assembly of the Republic and the Courts.[62] The President, who is elected to a five-year term, has an executive role: the current President is Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa. The Assembly of the Republic is a single chamber parliament composed of 230 deputies elected for a four-year term. The Government is headed by the Prime Minister (currently António Costa) and includes Ministers and Secretaries of State. The Courts are organized into several levels, among the judicial, administrative and fiscal branches. The Supreme Courts are institutions of last resort/appeal. A thirteen-member Constitutional Court oversees the constitutionality of the laws. Portugal operates a multi-party system of competitive legislatures/local administrative governments at the national, regional and local levels. The Assembly of the Republic, Regional Assemblies and local municipalities and parishes, are dominated by two political parties, the Socialist Party and the Social Democratic Party, in addition to the Unitary Democratic Coalition (Portuguese Communist Party and Ecologist Party “The Greens”), the Left Bloc and the Democratic and Social Centre – People’s Party, which garner between 5 and 15% of the vote regularly. Presidency of the Republic Edit Head of State of Portugal is the President of the Republic, elected to a five-year term by direct, universal suffrage. He or she has also supervision and reserve powers. Presidential powers include the appointment of the Prime Minister and the other members of the Government (where the President takes into account the results of legislative elections); dismissing the Prime Minister; dissolving the Assembly of the Republic (to call early elections); vetoing legislation (which may be overridden by the Assembly); and declaring a state of war or siege. The President is also the ex officio Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. The President is advised on issues of importance by the Council of State, which is composed of six senior civilian officers, any former Presidents elected under the 1976 Constitution, five-members chosen by the Assembly, and five selected by the president. Government Edit Main articles: Government of Portugal, Prime Minister of Portugal, and List of Prime Ministers of Portugal The Praça do Comércio houses multiple ministries of the Government of Portugal. The Government is headed by the presidentially appointed Prime Minister, also including one or more Deputy Prime Ministers, Ministers, Secretaries of State and Under-Secretaries of State. The Government is both the organ of sovereignty that conducts the general politics of the country and the superior body of the public administration. It has essentially Executive powers, but has also limited Legislative powers. The Government can legislate about its own organization, about areas covered by legislative authorizations conceded by the Assembly of the Republic and about the specific regulation of generalist laws issued by the Assembly. The Council of Ministers – under the presidency of the Prime Minister (or the President of Portugal at the latter’s request) and the Ministers (may also include one or more Deputy Prime Ministers) – acts as the cabinet. Each government is required to define the broad outline of its policies in a programme, and present it to the Assembly for a mandatory period of debate. The failure of the Assembly to reject the government programme by an absolute majority of deputies confirms the cabinet in office. Parliament Edit São Bento Palace is the seat of the Portuguese Legislature. Main articles: Assembly of the Republic (Portugal) and List of political parties in Portugal The Assembly of the Republic, in Lisbon is the national parliament of Portugal. It is the main Legislative body, although the Government also has limited legislative powers. The Assembly of the Republic is a unicameral body composed of up to 230 deputies. Elected by universal suffrage according to a system of closed party-list proportional representation, deputies serve four-year terms of office, unless the President dissolves the Assembly and calls for new elections. Currently the Government (PS) and the parties supporting it through a confidence-and-supply agreement (BE, PCP, PEV) control parliament with the most seats. The PSD and CDS-PP parties form the opposition to the government alongside a single seat held by PAN. Law and drug policy Edit Head of State of Portugal is the President of the Republic, elected to a five-year term by direct, universal suffrage. He or she has also supervision and reserve powers. Presidential powers include the appointment of the Prime Minister and the other members of the Government (where the President takes into account the results of legislative elections); dismissing the Prime Minister; dissolving the Assembly of the Republic (to call early elections); vetoing legislation (which may be overridden by the Assembly); and declaring a state of war or siege. The President is also the ex officio Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. The President is advised on issues of importance by the Council of State, which is composed of six senior civilian officers, any former Presidents elected under the 1976 Constitution, five-members chosen by the Assembly, and five selected by the president. Government Edit Main articles: Government of Portugal, Prime Minister of Portugal, and List of Prime Ministers of Portugal The Praça do Comércio houses multiple ministries of the Government of Portugal. The Government is headed by the presidentially appointed Prime Minister, also including one or more Deputy Prime Ministers, Ministers, Secretaries of State and Under-Secretaries of State. The Government is both the organ of sovereignty that conducts the general politics of the country and the superior body of the public administration. It has essentially Executive powers, but has also limited Legislative powers. The Government can legislate about its own organization, about areas covered by legislative authorizations conceded by the Assembly of the Republic and about the specific regulation of generalist laws issued by the Assembly. The Council of Ministers – under the presidency of the Prime Minister (or the President of Portugal at the latter’s request) and the Ministers (may also include one or more Deputy Prime Ministers) – acts as the cabinet. Each government is required to define the broad outline of its policies in a programme, and present it to the Assembly for a mandatory period of debate. The failure of the Assembly to reject the government programme by an absolute majority of deputies confirms the cabinet in office. Parliament Edit São Bento Palace is the seat of the Portuguese Legislature. Main articles: Assembly of the Republic (Portugal) and List of political parties in Portugal The Assembly of the Republic, in Lisbon is the national parliament of Portugal. It is the main Legislative body, although the Government also has limited legislative powers. The Assembly of the Republic is a unicameral body composed of up to 230 deputies. Elected by universal suffrage according to a system of closed party-list proportional representation, deputies serve four-year terms of office, unless the President dissolves the Assembly and calls for new elections. Currently the Government (PS) and the parties supporting it through a confidence-and-supply agreement (BE, PCP, PEV) control parliament with the most seats. The PSD and CDS-PP parties form the opposition to the government alongside a single seat held by PAN. Law and drug policy Edit Head of State of Portugal is the President of the Republic, elected to a five-year term by direct, universal suffrage. He or she has also supervision and reserve powers. Presidential powers include the appointment of the Prime Minister and the other members of the Government (where the President takes into account the results of legislative elections); dismissing the Prime Minister; dissolving the Assembly of the Republic (to call early elections); vetoing legislation (which may be overridden by the Assembly); and declaring a state of war or siege. The President is also the ex officio Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. The President is advised on issues of importance by the Council of State, which is composed of six senior civilian officers, any former Presidents elected under the 1976 Constitution, five-members chosen by the Assembly, and five selected by the president. Government Edit Main articles: Government of Portugal, Prime Minister of Portugal, and List of Prime Ministers of Portugal The Praça do Comércio houses multiple ministries of the Government of Portugal. The Government is headed by the presidentially appointed Prime Minister, also including one or more Deputy Prime Ministers, Ministers, Secretaries of State and Under-Secretaries of State. The Government is both the organ of sovereignty that conducts the general politics of the country and the superior body of the public administration. It has essentially Executive powers, but has also limited Legislative powers. The Government can legislate about its own organization, about areas covered by legislative authorizations conceded by the Assembly of the Republic and about the specific regulation of generalist laws issued by the Assembly. The Council of Ministers – under the presidency of the Prime Minister (or the President of Portugal at the latter’s request) and the Ministers (may also include one or more Deputy Prime Ministers) – acts as the cabinet. Each government is required to define the broad outline of its policies in a programme, and present it to the Assembly for a mandatory period of debate. The failure of the Assembly to reject the government programme by an absolute majority of deputies confirms the cabinet in office. Parliament Edit São Bento Palace is the seat of the Portuguese Legislature. Main articles: Assembly of the Republic (Portugal) and List of political parties in Portugal The Assembly of the Republic, in Lisbon is the national parliament of Portugal. It is the main Legislative body, although the Government also has limited legislative powers. The Assembly of the Republic is a unicameral body composed of up to 230 deputies. Elected by universal suffrage according to a system of closed party-list proportional representation, deputies serve four-year terms of office, unless the President dissolves the Assembly and calls for new elections. Currently the Government (PS) and the parties supporting it through a confidence-and-supply agreement (BE, PCP, PEV) control parliament with the most seats. The PSD and CDS-PP parties form the opposition to the government alongside a single seat held by PAN. Law and drug policy Edit Head of State of Portugal is the President of the Republic, elected to a five-year term by direct, universal suffrage. He or she has also supervision and reserve powers. Presidential powers include the appointment of the Prime Minister and the other members of the Government (where the President takes into account the results of legislative elections); dismissing the Prime Minister; dissolving the Assembly of the Republic (to call early elections); vetoing legislation (which may be overridden by the Assembly); and declaring a state of war or siege. The President is also the ex officio Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. The President is advised on issues of importance by the Council of State, which is composed of six senior civilian officers, any former Presidents elected under the 1976 Constitution, five-members chosen by the Assembly, and five selected by the president. Government Edit Main articles: Government of Portugal, Prime Minister of Portugal, and List of Prime Ministers of Portugal The Praça do Comércio houses multiple ministries of the Government of Portugal. The Government is headed by the presidentially appointed Prime Minister, also including one or more Deputy Prime Ministers, Ministers, Secretaries of State and Under-Secretaries of State. The Government is both the organ of sovereignty that conducts the general politics of the country and the superior body of the public administration. It has essentially Executive powers, but has also limited Legislative powers. The Government can legislate about its own organization, about areas covered by legislative authorizations conceded by the Assembly of the Republic and about the specific regulation of generalist laws issued by the Assembly. The Council of Ministers – under the presidency of the Prime Minister (or the President of Portugal at the latter’s request) and the Ministers (may also include one or more Deputy Prime Ministers) – acts as the cabinet. Each government is required to define the broad outline of its policies in a programme, and present it to the Assembly for a mandatory period of debate. The failure of the Assembly to reject the government programme by an absolute majority of deputies confirms the cabinet in office. Parliament Edit São Bento Palace is the seat of the Portuguese Legislature. Main articles: Assembly of the Republic (Portugal) and List of political parties in Portugal The Assembly of the Republic, in Lisbon is the national parliament of Portugal. It is the main Legislative body, although the Government also has limited legislative powers. The Assembly of the Republic is a unicameral body composed of up to 230 deputies. Elected by universal suffrage according to a system of closed party-list proportional representation, deputies serve four-year terms of office, unless the President dissolves the Assembly and calls for new elections. Currently the Government (PS) and the parties supporting it through a confidence-and-supply agreement (BE, PCP, PEV) control parliament with the most seats. The PSD and CDS-PP parties form the opposition to the government alongside a single seat held by PAN. Law and drug policy Edit have increased substantially in the past years. On 31 May 2010, Portugal became the sixth country in Europe and the eighth country in the world to legally recognize same-sex marriage on the national level. The law came into force on 5 June 2010.[66] Same-sex adoption is allowed since 1 March 2016[67] as is female same-sex couple access to medically assisted reproduction since 13 May 2016.[68] This bill was adopted by the Parliament and signed by President Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa.[69][70][71] As of January 2017 the New Law of Gender Identity,[72] simplified the process of gender and name change for transgender people, making it easier for minors to change their gender identity.[73]

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