Scotland has five international airports—Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Glasgow Prestwick, and Inverness—operating scheduled services to Europe, North America and Asia, as well domestic services to England, Northern Ireland and Wales. Highlands and Islands Airports operates eleven airports across the Highlands, Orkney, Shetland and the Western Isles, which are primarily used for short distance, public service operations. Edinburgh Airport is currently Scotland’s busiest airport handling over 14 million passengers in 2018.[312] It is also the UK’s 6th busiest airport. British Airways, easyJet, flybe, Jet2, and Ryanair operate the majority of flights between Scotland and other major UK and European airports. There are currently three Scottish-based airlines: Directflight, Hebridean Air Services and Loganair. Network Rail owns and operates the fixed infrastructure assets of the railway system in Scotland, while Transport Scotland retains overall responsibility for rail strategy and funding in Scotland.[313] Scotland’s rail network has around 350 railway stations and 3,000 kilometres (1,900 mi) of track,[314] a decline of over one-third since the mid-twentieth century.[202] Over 89.3 million passenger journeys are made each year.[314] The East Coast and West Coast main railway lines connect the major cities and towns of Scotland with each other and with the rail network in England. London North Eastern Railway provides inter-city rail journeys between Glasgow, Edinburgh, Aberdeen and Inverness to London.[citation needed] Completed in 1890, the railway bridge over the Firth of Forth has been described as the most iconic image of modern Scotland.[13]:104 The Scottish motorways and major trunk roads are managed by Transport Scotland, while the remainder of the road network is managed by local authorities. Bus transport was privatized in the 1980s.[202] Regular ferry services operate between the Scottish mainland and outlying islands. Ferries serving both the inner and outer Hebrides are principally operated by the state-owned enterprise Caledonian MacBrayne. Services to the Northern Isles are operated by Serco. Other routes, served by multiple companies, connect southwest Scotland to Northern Ireland. Additional routes are operated by local authorities. Scotland’s primary sources for electricity generation are provided though renewable energy (42%), nuclear (35%) and fossil fuel generation (22%).[310] The Scottish Government has a target to have the equivalent of 50% of the energy for Scotland’s heat, transport and electricity consumption to be supplied from renewable sources by 2030.[311] Transport Domestic rail services are operated by Abellio ScotRail The Forth Bridge A Calmac ferry departing Stornoway Main article: Transport in Scotland Scotland has five international airports—Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Glasgow Prestwick, and Inverness—operating scheduled services to Europe, North America and Asia, as well domestic services to England, Northern Ireland and Wales. Highlands and Islands Airports operates eleven airports across the Highlands, Orkney, Shetland and the Western Isles, which are primarily used for short distance, public service operations. Edinburgh Airport is currently Scotland’s busiest airport handling over 14 million passengers in 2018.[312] It is also the UK’s 6th busiest airport. British Airways, easyJet, flybe, Jet2, and Ryanair operate the majority of flights between Scotland and other major UK and European airports. There are currently three Scottish-based airlines: Directflight, Hebridean Air Services and Loganair. Network Rail owns and operates the fixed infrastructure assets of the railway system in Scotland, while Transport Scotland retains overall responsibility for rail strategy and funding in Scotland.[313] Scotland’s rail network has around 350 railway stations and 3,000 kilometres (1,900 mi) of track,[314] a decline of over one-third since the mid-twentieth century.[202] Over 89.3 million passenger journeys are made each year.[314] The East Coast and West Coast main railway lines connect the major cities and towns of Scotland with each other and with the rail network in England. London North Eastern Railway provides inter-city rail journeys between Glasgow, Edinburgh, Aberdeen and Inverness to London.[citation needed] Completed in 1890, the railway bridge over the Firth of Forth has been described as the most iconic image of modern Scotland.[13]:104 The Scottish motorways and major trunk roads are managed by Transport Scotland, while the remainder of the road network is managed by local authorities. Bus transport was privatized in the 1980s.[202] Regular ferry services operate between the Scottish mainland and outlying islands. Ferries serving both the inner and outer Hebrides are principally operated by the state-owned enterprise Caledonian MacBrayne. Services to the Northern Isles are operated by Serco. Other routes, served by multiple companies, connect southwest Scotland to Northern Ireland. Additional routes are operated by local authorities. See also References “Ethnic groups, Scotland, 2001 and 2011” (PDF). The Scottish Government. 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2013. “Scotland’s Census – Religion” (PDF). Scotland’s Census. Retrieved 8 January 2019. Region and Country Profiles, Key Statistics and Profiles, October 2013, ONS. Retrieved 9 August 2015. https://www.ons.gov.uk/economy/grossvalueaddedgva/bulletins/regionalgrossvalueaddedbalanceduk/1998to2017/pdf “Sub-national HDI – Area Database – Global Data Lab”. hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 13 September 2018. Collier, J. G. (2001) Conflict of Laws (Third edition)(pdf) Cambridge University Press. “For the purposes of the English conflict of laws, every country in the world which is not part of England and Wales is a foreign country and its foreign laws. This means that not only totally foreign independent countries such as France or Russia … are foreign countries but also British Colonies such as the Falkland Islands. Moreover, the other parts of the United Kingdom – Scotland and Northern Ireland – are foreign countries for present purposes, as are the other British Islands, the Isle of Man, Jersey and Guernsey.” Devine, T. M. (1999), The Scottish Nation 1700–2000, P.288–289, ISBN 0-14-023004-1 “created a new and powerful local state run by the Scottish bourgeoisie and reflecting their political and religious values. It was this local state, rather than a distant and usually indifferent Westminster authority, that in effect routinely governed Scotland” Duffy, Seán, ed. (2005). Medieval Ireland: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 698. ISBN 9781135948245. Forsyth, Katherine (2005). “Origins: Scotland to 1100”. In Wormald, Jenny (ed.). Scotland: A History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199601646. Stringer, Keith (2005). “The Emergence of a Nation-State, 1100–1300”. In Wormald, Jenny (ed.). Scotland: A History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199601646. The earliest known evidence is a flint arrowhead from Islay. See Moffat, Alistair (2005) Before Scotland: The Story of Scotland Before History. London. Thames & Hudson. Page 42. Pryor, Francis (2003). Britain BC. London: HarperPerennial. pp. 98–104 & 246–250. ISBN 978-0-00-712693-4. Houston, Rab (2008). Scotland: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780191578861. Hanson, William S. The Roman Presence: Brief Interludes, in Edwards, Kevin J. & Ralston, Ian B.M. (Eds) (2003). Scotland After the Ice Age: Environment, Archeology and History, 8000 BC—AD 1000. Edinburgh. Edinburgh University Press. Robertson, Anne S. (1960). The Antonine Wall. Glasgow Archaeological Society. Keys, David (27 June 2018). “Ancient Roman ‘hand of god’ discovered near Hadrian’s Wall sheds light on biggest combat operation ever in UK”. Independent. Retrieved 6 July 2018. Brown, Dauvit (2001). “Kenneth mac Alpin”. In M. Lynch (ed.). The Oxford Companion to Scottish History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 359. ISBN 978-0-19-211696-3. “Scotland Conquered, 1174–1296”. National Archives. “Scotland Regained, 1297–1328”. National Archives of the United Kingdom. Murison, A. F. (1899). King Robert the Bruce (reprint 2005 ed.). Kessinger Publishing. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-4179-1494-4. Brown, Michael; Boardman, Steve (2005). “Survival and Revival: Late Medieval Scotland”. In Wormald, Jenny (ed.). Scotland: A History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199601646. Mason, Roger (2005). “Renaissance and Reformation: The Sixteenth Century”. In Wormald, Jenny (ed.). Scotland: A History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199601646. “James IV, King of Scots 1488–1513”. BBC. “Battle of Flodden, (Sept. 9, 1513)”. Encyclopædia Britannica. “Religion, Marriage and Power in Scotland, 1503–1603”. The National Archives of the United Kingdom. Ross, David (2002). Chronology of Scottish History. Geddes & Grosset. p. 56. ISBN 978-1-85534-380-1. 1603: James VI becomes James I of England in the Union of the Crowns, and leaves Edinburgh for London Devine, T M (2018). The Scottish Clearances: A History of the Dispossessed, 1600-1900. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 978-0241304105. Wormald, Jenny (2005). “Confidence and Perplexity: The Seventeenth Century”. In Wormald, Jenny (ed.). Scotland: A History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199601646. Cullen, Karen J. (2010). Famine in Scotland: The ‘ill Years’ of The 1690s. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 152–3. ISBN 978-0748638871. Mackie, J.D. (1969) A History of Scotland. London. Penguin. Devine, T. M. (1999). The Scottish Nation 1700–2000. Penguin Books. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-14-023004-8. From that point on anti-union demonstrations were common in the capital. In November rioting spread to the south west, that stronghold of strict Calvinism and covenanting tradition. The Glasgow mob rose against union

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